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However, most ``out of the box'' installation procedures from companies such as Sun Microsystems still install the operating system in much the same way as it was installed 15 years ago: with little or no security enabled.The reasons for this state of affairs are largely histori- cal.UNIX was originally designed by programmers for use by other programmers.The environment in which it was used was one of open cooperation, not one of privacy.Curry, Systems Programmer Information and Telecommunications Sciences and Technology Division ITSTD-721-FR-90-21 Approved: Paul K. Fair, General Manager Division Operations Section Michael S.Frankel, Vice President Information and Telecommunications Sciences and Technology Division SRI International 333 Ravenswood Avenue Menlo Park, CA 94025 (415) 326-6200 FAX: (415) 326-5512 Telex: 334486 1 INTRODUCTION...........................................

However, these same features, along with the widespread connection of UNIX systems to the Internet and other networks, have opened up many new areas of vulnerability to unauthorized abuse of the system.Several sites, including parts of MIT, NASA's Ames Research Center and Goddard Space Flight Center, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and the U. Army Ballistic Research Laboratory, disconnected themselves from the Internet to avoid recontamina- tion.In addition, the Defense Communications Agency ordered the connections between the MILNET and ARPANET shut down, and kept them down for nearly 24 hours [Eich89, Elme88].1 1.1 UNIX Security.......................................... 1 1.2 The Internet Worm...................................... 2 1.3 Spies and Espionage.................................... 3 1.4 Other Break-Ins........................................ 4 1.5 Security is Important.................................. 4 2 IMPROVING SECURITY..................................... 5 2.1 Account Security....................................... 5 2.1.1 Passwords.............................................. 5 2.1.1.1 Selecting Passwords.................................... 6 2.1.1.2 Password Policies...................................... 8 2.1.1.3 Checking Password Security............................. 8 2.1.2 Expiration Dates....................................... 9 2.1.3 Guest Accounts......................................... 10 2.1.4 Accounts Without Passwords............................. 10 2.1.5 Group Accounts and Groups.............................. 10 2.1.6 Yellow Pages........................................... 11 2.2 Network Security....................................... 12 2.2.1 Trusted Hosts.......................................... 13 2.2.1.1 The hosts.equiv File................................... 13 2.2.1.2 The .rhosts File....................................... 14 2.2.2 Secure Terminals....................................... 15 2.2.3 The Network File System................................ 16 2.2.3.1 The exports File....................................... 16 2.2.3.2 The netgroup File...................................... 17 2.2.3.3 Restricting Super-User Access.......................... 18 2.2.4 FTP.................................................... 19 2.2.4.1 Trivial FTP............................................ 20 2.2.5 Mail................................................... 21 2.2.6 Finger................................................. 22 2.2.7 Modems and Terminal Servers............................ 23 2.2.8 Firewalls.............................................. 23 2.3 File System Security................................... 24 2.3.1 Setuid Shell Scripts................................... 25 2.3.2 The Sticky Bit on Directories..........................26 2.3.3 The Setgid Bit on Directories..........................

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